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ישראל מפספסת את מהפכת התחבורה הבאה – מימן

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ד"ר אריק סמל, סמנכ"ל מדיניות איכות סביבה וקיימות במכון הישראלי לאנרגיה וסביבה

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לאחרונה שברה טויוטה את שיא העולם בנהיגה ללא תדלוק, כאשר רכב המימן שייצרה גמא מרחק של 1,003 ק"מ בנסיעה אחת, כל זאת עם אפס פליטות של חומרים מזהמים. הנסיעה הנקייה ושבירת השיא באמצעות רכב מבוסס מימן, לצד השימוש ההולך וגובר במקור אנרגיה זה במדינות העולם המתקדמות מסמן את השינוי בתחומי האנרגיה, הסביבה והתחבורה.

בשנים האחרונות עשרות מדינות הבינו את היתרונות הרבים, בעיקר הסביבתיים, הטמונים במימן. האיחוד האירופי ומדינות נוספות ובהן גרמניה, צרפת, הולנד ובריטניה פרסמו תוכניות ענק במטרה לקדם את השימוש במקור אנרגיה זה במגזרים השונים שבשטחן. ההבנה כי הגדלת השימוש במימן – שתוצר הלוואי שלו הוא מים, יאפשר להן להתנתק בהדרגתיות מאנרגיות מזהמות ולעמוד ביעדיהן הסביבתיים הביאה אותן להשקעות של מיליארדי יורו בתוכניות לקידום הנושא. האיחוד האירופי, שמוביל את המהלך, צופה השקעה של כ-470 מיליארד יורו עד שנת 2050 בפיתוח כלכלת מימן, גרמניה הודיעה על השקעה של כ-9 מיליארד יורו וצרפת כ-7 מיליארד יורו בקידום התחום עד לשנת 2030. גם קליפורניה, המדינה השלישית בגודלה בארצות הברית פרסמה לאחרונה עבודה שבה קבעה יעד תחבורתי של כמיליון (!) רכבים המונעים באנרגיה זו עד לשנת 2030 לצד פריסת כ-1,000 תחנות תדלוק ייעודיות.

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כבר היום מדינות העולם מנצלות את המימן כחומר גלם ומקור אנרגיה נקי לשימוש בתעשייה המסורתית, במפעלים ובייצור חשמל כאמצעי להפחתת פליטות ומעבר לסביבה נקייה וחדשנית יותר

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לפי דוח הסוכנות הבינלאומית לאנרגיה שפורסם השנה, על מנת לעמוד ביעדים להפחתת פליטות גזי חממה צריך להכפיל פי 17,000 את יכולות יצור המימן עד לשנת 2050. אולם בעוד שרוב מדיניות אירופה והמערב פועלות הלכה למעשה לקידום תחבורה מבוססת מימן, לצד הכנסת טכנולוגיות נוספות שיאפשרו הפחתת פליטות ומעבר לכלכלה דלת פחמן, בישראל אפילו לא קיימת תכנית מתאר מסודרת לפריסת טכנולוגיות חדשות לכלי רכב.

אין ספק שכבר היום ישראל נמצאת בפיגור אדיר מול מדינות העולם בכל הקשור למהפכה של תחבורת המימן. אולם נראה שגם במהפכה הסביבתית החדשה שתשנה את כללי המשחק וכוללת הסבה של חלק מהתשתיות והמתקנים של מגזר האנרגיה והתעשייה, היא פותחת פער עצום שיהיה קשה לצמצם. זאת, למרות הפוטנציאל העצום שיש בה להובלת מהפכה זו.

עבודה שערכה לאחרונה חברת הייעוץ הבריטית Economics Frontier שהשוותה את המדיניות הסביבתית של מדינות באירופה וישראל בתוכן, מצאה כי בכל המדינות שנבדקו צפויות להיות תחנות תדלוק במימן עד סוף העשור. בגרמניה, כבר פועלות כ-100 תחנות תדלוק ייעודיות והצפי הוא שמימן יתפוס נתח גדול יותר בסקטור התחבורה גם לאחר שנת 2030.

אך לא רק במגזר התחבורה. כבר היום מדינות העולם מנצלות את המימן כחומר גלם ומקור אנרגיה נקי לשימוש בתעשייה המסורתית, במפעלים ובייצור חשמל כאמצעי להפחתת פליטות ומעבר לסביבה נקייה וחדשנית יותר. הקידמה הטכנולוגית מאפשרת דברים שבעבר לא היו אפשריים: הפקת אנרגיה נקייה שתוצר הלוואי שלה הוא מים. תהליך שעד לא מזמן היה נראה בלתי אפשרי, הופך היום למציאות ישימה טכנולוגית וכלכלית.

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גם יצרניות הרכב הגדולות בעולם כמו טויוטה, אאודי ומרצדס כבר מייצרות רכבים מונעים במימן ורואות את העתיד בתחום זה

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חשוב לזכור שגם יצרניות הרכב הגדולות בעולם כמו טויוטה, אאודי ומרצדס כבר מייצרות רכבים מונעים במימן ורואות את העתיד בתחום זה. היתרון העצום במעבר לאנרגיה זו הוא היכולת להשתמש בתשתיות קיימות כמו מתקני ייצור ואחסון, תחנות הדלק וצינורות שינוע הדלקים, את כל אלו אפשר להסב לשימוש במימן. בדרך זו אפשר לחסוך כסף, משאבים וזמן רב אשר היו מתבזבזים על הליכי תכנון ובנייה מורכבים עבור הקמת תשתיות חדשות. ולמרות זאת, בעוד שהעולם מתקדם עם מהפכת המימן, אצלנו התחום הזה לא מקבל ביטוי ראוי בשום תכנית ממשלתית.

לישראל יש כעת הזדמנות להוביל את המהפכה החדשה ולהפוך לסמל בתחום התחבורה הנקייה, ולא רק על הנייר. התשתיות והאמצעים כבר קיימים וכדי שלא נישאר מאחור, על הממשלה החדשה לקבוע עוד היום תכנית אסטרטגית המבססת את מגזרי האנרגיה והתחבורה על מגוון מוצרים מתקדמים ונקיים כמו מימן ולהוציאה אל הפועל בעזרת תכנית סיוע תקציבית בדומה לנעשה באירופה.

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